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Main provisions of the Bologna Declaration

In its first phase, the Bologna Process focussed on 10 Action lines. With time, these have been rephrased, and further developed. Major Bologna goals and instruments are:

  • A converged degree structure: three study cycles of Bachelor, Masters and Doctorates, laid down in the EHEA Qualifications Framework, which is largely compliant with higher education qualifications in the EU Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning. In the Yerevan Communiqué, Ministers agreed to recognize short cycle degrees.
  • A joint credit system, usually the European credit transfer system (ECTS) or a compliant system.
  • Mobility of students and staff.
  • Internationalisation of higher education systems and institutions, the international visibility of the EHEA, also named “Bologna in a global setting” or “international attractiveness”.
  • A European Dimension of Quality Assurance – based on the  Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG) and the European Quality Assurance Register for Higher Education (EQAR) – so far the only institution created by the Bologna Process.
  • Social dimension, lifelong learning and widening access and participation.
  • Recognition of study periods, based on the credit system, and degrees, in line with the Lisbon Recognition Convention.


  • The Bologna three cycle structure

One of the main directions of the Bologna process is the introduction of three consecutive cycles of higher education, namely, first, second and third cycle leading to the obtaining of three degrees – bachelor's, master's and doctorate. For the programs of bachelor and master developed a General model, while for the third cycle has not yet formed a clear rule, and the right of their determination is largely outside the universities, who do not strive for more regulation of their own activities. Uzbekistan also adopted three level model that corresponds in principle to the Bologna Process.

  • The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

ECTS is a tool that enables students to collect credits for successfully mastered courses at the University. The system aims at improving transparency of results and learning processes and facilitate the recognition of periods of study. In practice, this system facilitates the comparison and provides an understanding of work related programmes/courses. It is also an important tool in facilitating student mobility and study abroad. In practice, 60 ECTS credits represent the workload of one year of formal learning (academic year) full-time and relevant learning outcomes. In Uzbekistan, it is still a practice of determining the labor costs of teaching staff in the format of hours teaching load and uses a system similar consideration.

  • The Bologna Diploma Supplement (PD)

The Bologna Diploma Supplement is a document attached to a higher education diploma to improve international transparency and facilitate academic and professional recognition of qualifications. It consists of eight sections describing in particular the nature, level, context, content and status of the successfully completed training. The app also includes a description of the national system of higher education. In other words, it describes the context of the diploma and helps its holder to demonstrate his/her qualifications. In Uzbekistan there is also the diploma Supplement, but it contains name of subjects passed and the grades earned.

  • National qualifications framework (NQF)

National qualifications framework is an instrument for the classification of qualifications according to a set of criteria for specified levels of learning achieved. The NQF is intended to improve the transparency, access, descriptions of trajectories of transition to higher level qualifications and for quality assurance of qualifications in the interests of the labour market and civil society. It describes and relate the different qualifications and other achievements in the field of education that can be obtained in a particular country. Uzbekistan is still only in the initial stage of the discussion of the NQF and in general shows some interest in their development.

  • The national quality assurance system (NQA)

In the context of this study, quality assurance refers to the process of evaluation, monitoring, securing, maintaining and improving the quality systems of educational institutions and programs of higher education. At the national level, this type of external evaluation should ideally be conducted in an independent and Autonomous body, endowed with appropriate powers. In Uzbekistan the issues of ensuring the quality of higher education and accreditation and certification of universities involved in State Testing Center under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It does not use the participation of international agencies for the evaluation and quality assurance, both at the level of institutional and programme.

  • Recognition of foreign qualifications

Recognition of qualifications is a priority of the Bologna process and is seen as a vehicle for the development of international mobility and improved employability of graduates.One of the tools in this area is the Lisbon Convention on recognition of qualifications, representing the international Convention for the recognition of qualifications awarded in one country, in other countries, on the basis of established standards. The Convention was developed jointly by the Council of Europe and UNESCO have signed more than 50 countries in Europe and countries outside Europe. It is primarily intended for use in member countries of the Council of Europe and in Europe and North America, UNESCO. In Uzbekistan the issues of recognition engaged in the State Testing Center and at present, almost fully recognizes the education received abroad. However, issues of short-term mobility at the undergraduate level is still not solved.

  • Joint programs and degrees

In the global context joint degrees and programmes become an important aspect of internationalisation strategies and are considered as a key element of University cooperation. In Uzbekistan legislated a number of international programmes that are taught in branches of foreign universities.Thus, it is clear that the implementation of the Bologna process in the participating countries, as well as the development of elements of the Bologna Process in Uzbekistan is a long and complex process, which is typical for the countries of the European Union. However, the Bologna process is for many countries neighbouring the EU, some system of coordinates and is often seen as a prerequisite inter-institutional cooperation and exchange of students and staff with partners from the EU. In many countries, the Bologna process is also seen as a catalyst for wider reform. As a tool of strengthening of internationalisation of higher education, it is actually important engine for large-scale reforms, because it forces one to rethink the current structure and governance arrangements, including how we think and in the Republic of Uzbekistan.